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Some mathematical functions in Python 3.x
In Python 3.x, to be able to use mathematical functions, you need to import the Python math library with the following command line:
import math

Then, all mathematical functions from the math library become available.

    Example :
      >> import math
      >> math.cos(math.pi)

      This succession of instructions returns the value of \(cos(\pi)\), namely -1.

Here is a non-exhaustive list of the functions available in the Python math library:

  • To calculate the logarithm of a number (natural logarithm to base \(e\)): \(\ln(x)\)
  • math.log(x)

  • To calculate the exponential of a number: \(e^x\) (ou \(\exp(x)\))
  • math.exp(x)

  • To calculate the square root of a number: \(\sqrt{x}\)
  • math.sqrt(x)

  • To calculate the cosine of a number: \(\cos(x)\)
  • math.cos(x)

  • To calculate the sine of a number: \(\sin(x)\)
  • math.sin(x)

  • To calculate the tangent of a number: \(tan(x)\)
  • math.tan(x)

  • To use the number pi: \(\pi\)
  • math.pi

  • To calculate the power of a number: \(x^y\)
  • math.pow(x,y)

  • To get the closest integer smaller than a number (the integral part): the greatest integer less than or equal to x
  • math.floor(x)

  • To get the closest integer greater than a number: the smallest integer greater than or equal to x
  • math.ceil(x)

  • To calculate the absolute value of a number: \(\lvert x \rvert\)
  • math.fabs(x)

  • To calculate the factorial of an integer: \(x!\)
  • math.factorial(x)

If you have any comments or questions about the math library of Python 3.x, you can discuss them in the forum: Discussion forums.

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